If you’re looking for a machine polisher to speed up the task of waxing your car or removing scratches from your paint then I recommend you to have Dual action orbital polishers for you.
This dual-action polisher is also known as an orbital polisher. This action polisher is a very convenient power tool that you can use to polish for car-wax automotive paint.
Unlike Rotary polisher which spin in single direction forced rotation, Dual action orbital polisher will surely help you to oscillates or wobble while spinning and it is super safe to use.
Polishers come in two main categories Dual Action Random Orbital and Rotary buffers. This dual polisher really helps a person in improving the looks of your car color.
Many people will buy this polisher by watching the price, some will decide by watching the performance of the dual-action polisher, some will decide by watching the combination of all factors. But if you read this whole article then you will get the total idea about each and every single thing. As in this article, I am going to give you an unbiased review of the best DA polisher.
Before buying a dual polisher for you-you should take a look at these two things that are watching the price and watching the performance of the polisher. To avoid a poor selection of products, you must consider the recommendations from the professionals who have tested it.
What kind of tool is a dual-action orbital polisher?
A dual-action orbital polisher is a useful tool for removing swirl marks, oxidation, and minor scratches. It’s a preferred choice for applying wax.
What should I use whether car polish or wax?
You have to decide it. if you want to protect vehicles from the element, make them shine and bring out the gloss of their paint then you can use the car waxes. If you want to remove the scratches of your car and if you found any blemishes in the paint finish then you can use Car polish.
Which option is better machine wax or hand wax?
Polish and wax can be done both manually and electrically. The tools which we use to wax is known as a polisher. Electric polisher will save your time for that they are commonly used by dealers and body shops. The electric tool is still the most effective way to polish and wax a vehicle.
What makes a good buffer solution?
A buffer is a water-based solution containing a mixture of either a base and its conjugate acidan, or acid and its conjugate base.
The Torx 10fx is a middle-range professional-caliber polisher is a great choice for the person who is a weekend car fan. Professionals who deeply understand polishers, pads, and products will be more than happy with this Torq’s results and performance.READ MORE
Comparison of Dual Action Polisher 2021
|TORQ BUF501X 10FX Random Orbital Polisher kit||1500-4200||9.7||Check Price|
|PORTER-CABLE 7424XP 6-Inch Variable-Speed Polisher||2,500-6,800||9.8||Check Price|
|Meguiar’s MT300 Pro Power DA Polisher||3000 – 7500||9.6||Check Price|
|Makita 9227C 7-Inch Hook and Loop Electronic Polisher||600 – 3,000||9.4||Check Price|
|Rupes LHR15ES Big Foot||700-5000||9.2||Check Price|
|Flex XC3401||3200 to 9600||9.1||Check Price|
|Griot’s Garage 10813STDCRD 6″ Random Orbital Polisher||3000-6800||9.0||Check Price|
|DEWALT DWP849X 7-Inch/9-Inch Variable Speed Polisher||600-3500||8.9||Check Price|
|Chemical Guys BUF_209 Porter Cable||2,500 – 6,800||8.8||Check Price|
|Flex XFE-7-15-150||2700-6700||8.6||Check Price|
Benefits Of Dual Action Polisher
I mentioned the top ten products but before going further let’s pay attention to the benefits of a dual-action polisher. If you are looking for a dual-action polisher then you must know where it can be used the perfect example is your car scratch. Ok, let’s go straight to the point a dual action polisher is meant to remove minor scratches which not only will make your car look good but also the paint job on it will get more enhanced.
One more thing that you need yo keep in mind is that the usability of this product is also very simple once you get an hang of it then using it is very easy. It is also safe for paint work the leat it generate makes sure that the paint work doesnot get damaged.
There are majorly two types of polishers one is dua action polisher and another one is the rotary polisher both are great polishers you are open yo choose any as per your needs.
List Of 10 Best Dual Action Polisher 2021
So, before going to the main part let me tell you that the products that are mentioned here are not just random products I did a proper study on each and every dual action polisher that are present here I introduced each and every product with its pros and cons, features and an overall verdict on is that machine worth considering.
TORQ 10FX Random Orbital Polisher Review
- The Torx 10fx is a middle-range professional-caliber polisher that is a great choice for the person who is a weekend car fan.
- Professionals who deeply understand polishers, pads, and products will be more than happy with this Torq’s results and performance.
- This random orbit sander has come with an internal component and machine configuration that is pretty finely balanced for superior ease of use and unmatched user experience.
- The TORQ 10FX random orbital polisher will help you to redefines the state of the art by delivering a machine that is precise, accurate, smooth, powerful, and ergonomic.
- It has a digital display and speed control buttons which will surely provide you precise and intuitive control. The easy-to-read digital display of this polisher will help to give the user clear information about speed settings.
- The ergonomic design of this polisher will help you to fits perfectly in the hands of any detailing enthusiast or professional.
- The advanced vibration reduction technology allows the user to work for longer periods of time with minimal strain.
- The Torq 10 fx features a unique digital control system that creates a perfect speed to polish any vehicle while giving a smooth start-up and engagement.
- The TORQ 10FX is the machine of choice for any beginner, hardcore enthusiast, or professional detailer looking for one simple, lightweight, and powerful machine that can do it all.
- The powerful 700 watt motor of the TORQ 10FX delivers the power and torque needed and demanded by enthusiasts and professionals alike.
- Easy to use and easy to replace pads whenever that is needed
- Great for putting on waxes and glazes.
- The soft slow start is great as it keeps you in control with no jerking at the start.
- Its digital display and speed control buttons provide precise and intuitive control.
- It has a wide 2800 – 7800 RPM power band range.
- Speed controls in a bad location.
- Included flexible backer falls apart easily.
Special Feature of this Product
- Torq 10fx is a onboard digital controls for extra precision.
- It is designed specifically for car detailing.
It will be a great choice for the person who is a weekend car fan. This polisher has an easy-to-read digital display that gives the user clear information about speed settings. This polisher has an advanced vibration reduction technology which allows the user to work longer with minimal strain.
PORTER-CABLE 7424XP Polisher Review
- PORTER-CABLE 7424XP 6-inch variable-speed polisher which is the most popular dual action polisher in the market. It is also one of the cheapest.
- The Porter-Cable 7424XP 6-inch polisher features a 4.5 amp motor for high overload protection and random orbit.
- This dual-action polisher has a 6-speed setting so they have several options to choose from depending on how much speed they can handle and what type of work they want to do.
- The 7424XP accepts 5/16 to 24 spindle thread accessories, and it offers a full ball and roller bearing construction for durability under industrial workloads.
- This action polisher has a removable 2-position side handle so you can use whichever hand you want to use. If you don’t want to use the handle of the polisher, you can also have the option to remove it.
- This action polisher has a better design that is easy to use and comfortable. The trigger is well placed and makes for an easy transition from one position to another while removing swirls and oxidation from your car.
- It comes with a 6-inch polishing pad. Its random orbit, swirl-free sanding/polishing action.
- It features a proprietary counter balance for use with a 6-inch sanding/polishing pad, and it features a two-position (left or right) removable side handle for greater comfort and control.
- This Porter-Cable tool is backed by a three-year limited warranty covering any defects due to faulty materials or workmanship. It’s also covered by Porter-Cable’s one-year free service contract, where porter-cable will maintain the tool and replace worn parts caused by normal use–for free.
- The PC 7424XP Variable Speed Polisher is truly outstanding available in this market. Its electronic variable-speed dial is 2,500-6,800 OPM.
- This PORTER-CABLE 7424XP has a two-position (left or right) removable side that is pretty easy to handle for greater comfort and control.
- Ideal for polishing and sanding automotive and marine projects.
- This random orbit, swirl-free sanding/polishing action will help you in polishing.
- Backed by three years of limited period warranty.
- This polisher is a bit heavy for its size, but not the heaviest among all polishers.
- This dual-action polisher 2020 has no hook and loop attachment.
Overall, you can see why the porter cable 7424XP 6-Inch variable-speed polisher is so popular amongst novice and professionals. This polisher has a removable 2-position side handle so you can use this particular polisher with whichever hand you want to use. It is backed by three years of limited periods warranty so you can say that this polisher is durable.
Meguiar’s MT300 Polisher Review
- The Meguiars MT300 car polisher is designed for both professionals and beginners.
- The Meguiars MT300 Dual Action Polisher is ergonomically designed to deliver you outstanding user experience, even during extended polishing sessions.
- Meguiar’s polisher will surely help you to provide high-performance car care products for every automotive surface, both on the interior and exterior of cars.
- This dual-action polisher has a billet counterweight with a multi-bearing design that will provide you a smooth, precision balance with its increased durability.
- The wide 3000-7500 OPM (orbits per minute) speed range will help you to make polishing fast and highly effective. The orbital throw of the machine is 8mm.
- The best feature of this tool is its lightweight. The design of this polisher is pretty sleek and it weighs only 5.4 pounds in total. This particular polisher is specially designed to reduce the fatigue that you will feel when using it.
- The right amount of torque is delivered by the digital circuit so you can work continuously with just the right amount of speed.
- The MT300 is backed by 1-year of limited period warranty.
- The MT300 features digital torque Management (DMT) which gives vital torque to keep up the speed levels.
- This dual-action polisher has a multi-position D-handle that improves both comfort and control for optimal user preference.
- Meguiars MT300 is good for both beginners and professionals.
- This polisher will provide you a good grip, lightweight, and comfortability in the user’s hands.
- Meguiars MT300 will help you in removing contaminants with minimal effort.
- It has a soft start feature that helps in making sure that it doesn’t splatter the product all over.
- It does not come with a backing plate and pad.
- Can be a little noisy
The person who wants to invest in something which will do their job perfectly and last for a long period of time then this product will be the perfect choice for them. This polisher will be pretty much worthful if you pay for it.
Makita Polisher 9227C Review
- Makita 9227C polisher has comes with a precise tool with more settings on the speed dial than the DEWALT DWP849X polisher.
- The Makita 9237CX2 features a large, comfortable handle and a convenient spindle lock in the polisher which will surely help you to make changing pads easy.
- This is a multipurpose polisher that will work quite well in the detailing industry as it does with industries like “body shops” when it comes to sanding.
- The 9227C is powered by a 10 AMP motor with variable speed that will surely delivers you 600 – 3,000 RPM, with electronic speed control which will surely help you to maintain constant speed under load.
- The trigger lock of this polisher and its electronic speed control will help the polisher in working always at the same speed even under load. Makita polisher will also give you the 9227C a soft start like DEWALT did with its 849X.
- The 9227C is engineered for a wide range of polishing and sanding applications and is ideal for automotive and marine detailing as well as stone polishing work.
- The 9227C is just another example of Makita’s commitment to innovative technology and it is best-in-class engineering.
- Makita 9227c combines 10 AMP power and variable speed control with a pre-set maximum speed dial. The result of this polisher will provide you a fast and powerful polishing for clearcoat finishes.
- The soft-start polisher features a smooth start-up, and the lock-on button of this polisher is designed for continuous use at one speed.
- The ergonomic handle of this polisher has come with a lock-on trigger switch that is designed for continuous use at one speed, and the loop handle will provide you a comfortable grip for easier operation. The three-prong plug is engineered to prevent static electricity and accumulation.
- Makita tool is warranted to be free of defects from workmanship and materials for the period of one year from the date of original purchase.
- Makita 9237CX2 3 prong plug will help you to prevent static electricity accumulation.
- Its soft-start feature smooth start-ups.
- This sander has a powerful and fast polishing which will provide you clear coat finishes.
- The variable speed control of Makita 9237CX2 enables you to match the speed to the application.
- The loop handle of this polisher provides a comfortable grip for easier operation.
- Backed by only one year’s warranty if you want more durable polisher then have PORTER-CABLE 7424XP which will provide you three years warranty.
Makita 9237CX2 is powered by a 10 amp motor with variable speed that delivers 600 – 3,000 RPM. This polisher has comes with a comfortable handle and a convenient spindle lock to make changing pads easy.
Rupes Big Foot Polisher Review
- It is an Italian based tool. The LHR15 polisher is built to the absolute best models and is one of the lightest machines of its type and quality which makes it a great polisher.
- The Rupes is perfect for the novice and professional detailer who is looking for a high-performance polishing machine.
- The Rupes big foot polisher will help you to makes paint correction easier than even imagined without the risk of burning through the paintwork.
- It has comes with a smooth begin function which implies that it gently develops the speed when it first starts.
- The variable speed dial of this polisher is handy, It is easy to use and allows the operator to control the speed of the tool even when the tool is operating.
- The Rupes LHR 15es big foot random orbital polisher will leave you a flawless finish when polishing on a single stage and clear coat surfaces.
- The Rupes LHR 15ES big foot polisher will help you in making paint correction easier than even imagined without the risk of burning through the paintwork.
- The overall things of this DA polisher are good which makes it the ideal choice for the people who are using it professionally, the build quality of this dual action polisher is really great which makes it different from the other.
- The Rupes LHR 15ES big foot random orbital polisher features a variable speed control that will provide the user six settings for any polishing situation. It is a perfect polisher for polishing cars, trucks, boats, RVs, and even motorcycles.
- The Rupes LHR 15ES big foot random orbital polisher will take your detailing possibilities to the next level of perfection.
- Exceptionally smooth polisher, quiet compared to other machines, and very well balanced.
- Ergonomically very comfortable to hold, even for long detail tasks.
- This polisher is perfect for novice and professional detailers.
- It is perfect for polishing cars, trucks, boats, RVs, and even motorcycles.
- Backed by only one year of warranty.
- The price of the polisher is on the higher side.
The LHR15 is an Italian-based polisher that is built to last and it is one of the lightest machines of its type. This polisher is perfect for novice and professional detailers. Buyers who are looking for the lightest polisher can have this polisher.
Flex XC3401 VRG Review
- Flex is the most premium brand in the car care industry. So you can trust this brand when you want to buy a car paint polisher for yourself.
- The Flex XC 3401 VRG dual action orbital polisher comes with a combined rotary and orbital motion. This particular polisher will offer you the same level of cutting performance that buyers have got from flex first-generation rotary polisher.
- The XC3401 has comes with a powerful 900-watt motor and an impressive orbit speed range of up to 9600 ppm which makes this polisher really powerful one.
- The forced rotation of the XC3401 polisher is combined with a dual-action movement that will allow you for a real sense of control over the machines cutting and refining.
- It is a great product and easy to use. So people who want to have a dual action polisher which they can use easily can buy this flex xc3401.
- This particular polisher has comes with a forced rotation that will help you to cut on awkward angles without the help of the machine bogging down and you will not have the fear of overheating due to dual action.
- This Polisher is equipped with restart protection which will come in handy for temperature monitoring, power interruption, speed selection, and overload protection.
- It features a permanent direct drive for an even cleaned surface and, carbon brushes wear down, the motor will be automatically switched off and thus it will be protected from damage.
- This action polisher delivers a greater level of comfort, ease of use, and breathtaking results. It is a great all-rounder polisher and is suitable for every user.
- This polisher responds well to increase cut or less pressure when refining needed.
- The motor of this polisher will be automatically switched off and thus protected from damage.
- This dual-action polisher is really powerful.
- Faster, durable, and more reliable than any other buffer on the market.
- It’s quite a loud machine.
- The Vibration from this machine is quite strong.
The person who is the first-time polisher will find the grips with the flex very quickly. The motor of this polisher will be automatically switched off and thus protected from damage.
Griot’s Garage Polisher Review
- Griot’s Garage polisher has been designed for both experienced and beginner detailers and its a very popular polisher.
- This new orbital polisher offers the same great power as the previous version, but they have redesigned the exterior to achieve a new level of comfort and ease of use.
- This action polisher has a rubberized palm grip and finger notch on the head of the orbital, the plus molded finger grips on its body will provide you complete non-slip control.
- This latest-generation 6” Random Orbital combines the power, torque, and reliability of the previous model with ergonomic improvements that will give a joy for anyone to use.
- The Griot’s Garage 6” random orbital features a hook-and-loop backing plate, for easy mounting of a variety of pads. It is available with a 10-foot or optional 25-foot power cord.
- You can operate this machine under low speed, low heat conditions, so there you will find no fear of “burning” through paint or removing too much material.
- This dual-action random orbital polisher features a strong 5/16’ stroke and six variable speeds, from 2800 to 6800 OPMs.
- A domed, rubberized palm grip has come with an adjustable handle that ensures that this machine is pretty easy to use.
- The Griot’s Garage is backed by a limited period’s warranty to the buyers from the date of the original purchase.
- It has been designed for both experienced and beginner.
- This machine is easy to use and it will provide you a rubberized palm grip along with an adjustable handle.
- Griot’s Garage polisher is user-friendly and almost error-proof.
- The person who is a beginner Griot’s garage polisher will be an ideal choice for him.
- The pads of this polisher have to be purchased separately and can be difficult to find.
- Materials that are with the product can be expensive to replace.
It is a great all-rounder polisher and is suitable for everyone regardless of their experience. The best thing about this polisher is that it’s almost error-proof. It means if an accident occurs while using this polisher the polisher won’t cause any effect.
DEWALT DWP849X polisher review
- Dewalt DWP849X polisher is a great variable-speed polisher suited for metal surfaces or finishing concrete and detailing projects.
- The DEWALT DWP849X 7-Inch/9-Inch variable speed polisher is an easy-to-use tool that will allow you to polish a variety of materials with ease.
- The DWP849X’s polisher is included with a hook-and-loop backing pad that is made for quick and easy tool-free accessory changes, and it is compatible with a variety of hook-and-loop accessories from any number of brands.
- It’s ideal for applying a layer of wax completely, and with the help of this polisher, you can polish away the toughest scratches, 3D images, and oxidation.
- It has come with a variable speed trigger that will allow the user to control speed from 0 to dialed maximum setting easily. This speed trigger will help the buyer in controlling the polisher.
- This polisher has comes with electronic control for maintaining a specific speed on the load to deliver your desired results. You can use the variable speed dial of this polisher to adjust the speed up to 3,500 rpm in different applications.
- Dewalt DWP849X polisher combines both power and skill for auto and boat detailing and metal finishing.
- This dual-action polisher is backed by a 90-day money-back guarantee, a one-year free service contract, and a three-year limited warranty.
- Dewalt Dwp849X has a 3 position bale handle capabilities.
- It has a loop and hook accessories.
- You can use it to finish or polish metal or concrete surfaces.
- Backed by a three-year limited period warranty.
- If you use it for a long period of time it may get too hot to touch.
- The soft start of this polisher causes jumping.
DEWALT DWP849X 7-Inch/9-Inch polisher is a versatile polisher that can be used on a variety of materials like boats and cars. This product will really worth your money. This polisher has got a positive review from each and every customer which make this polisher really special.
Chemical Guys Polisher Review
- The Porter-Cable 7424XP is a professional tool guaranteed to bring out the very best finish.
- The Porter-Cable 7424XP features industry-leading Dual-Action technology which will help you to safely and effectively restore any color paintwork.
- Porter-Cable 7424XP operates an electronic variable speed between 2,500 – 6,800 OPM (Oscillations Per Minute).
- The Porter-Cable 7424XP is the safest way to restore your vehicle’s paintwork by removing swirl marks and scratches while also providing the ability to apply waxes and sealants faster than ever imagined.
- The porter cable 7424xp features industry-leading dual-action technology to safely and effectively restore any color paintwork.
- This porter cable works 100 times faster than a super buff athlete but it never gets tired
- This action polisher is the perfect kit for any detailing professional or automotive enthusiast to restore the paintwork on their vehicle.
- Chemical Guys include 2 monster microfiber towels with premium silk lining that is gentle and will keep your paintwork free of scratches.
- This porter cable provides a limited period warranty which is really great. So this provides durability for the buyer.
- This polisher safely and effectively restores any color paintwork.
- Porter-Cable 7424XP removes swirl marks and scratches.
- It works 100 times faster than a super buff athlete but it never gets tired.
- Backed by limited periods of warranty.
- It’s a bit heavy for its size, but not the heaviest among all polishers but if you want the lightest polisher then have Rupes Big Foot Polisher.
- It has no loop and no hook attachment.
The Porter-Cable buffer is popular for a reason; it is a good tool and an ideal choice for any beginner! It works 100 times faster than a super buff athlete but it never gets tired. All these features make Porter Cable 7424XP really special.
Flex XC3401VRG Review
- The FLEX XFE 7-15 150 random orbital polisher is perfectly balanced for surface finishing tasks.
- The Flex XFE7-15-150 is lighter than the Rupes LHR MKII but it is a little heavier than the Griot’s garage polishers. It’s more expensive than the Griots but cheaper than the Rupes polisher.
- The FLEX XFE 7-15 uses a free-spinning dual action mechanism to gently rub and scrub away scratched and swirled dead layers of paint with an abrasive pad and compound.
- The expanded orbital throw mechanism will help you to spreads buffing heat over a large area for even surface finishing and fast correction time.
- The FLEX XFE 7-15 is lightweight, balanced, and easy to handle for any detailing expert or enthusiast.
- The forced rotation of this polisher will allow for cutting on awkward angles without the machine bogging down and without fear of overheating due to dual action.
- The flex polisher has a real drive that has a constant lift which will ensure the polisher’s movement that it is precise under the load and its techniques are uniform.
- The Polisher is equipped with restart protection which will come in handy for temperature monitoring, power interruption, speed selection, and overload protection.
- It is equipped with restart protection.
- This polisher will not generate so much heat.
- Its forced rotation allows for cutting on awkward angles without the machine bogging down.
- It is lightweight, balanced, and easy to handle for any detailing expert or enthusiast.
- It’s not the smoothest polisher.
- This polisher is very harder to control.
It’s still one of the best polish machines for cars but, personally, I enjoy the long throw polishers more when needing to polish quickly or when polishing on large vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft.
Buyers Guide – Dual Action Polisher
Speed Before buying a dual-action polisher for you the first factor that you should consider is speed. The greater the speed the better it targets deep scratches. However greater speed often lead to more heat and friction. When using a high speed it needs caution. The ideal speed for a buffer range from 4000-2000 RPM.
Vibration Car buffer tends to vibrate when in use. Too much vibration can be uncomfortable and it causes inaccurate results as well. If you are planning on detailed work choose a buffer that has minimum vibration.
Weight As you have to lift the machine while doing work on your car. It is important that the buffer should be lightweight. If the machine is too heavy you will feel tired very quickly and you may not be able to work continuously. For best maneuverability, you should ensure the buffer you buy is lightweight and small.
Price Before selecting a car buffer you should fix a price. I think you should compromise on quality not on the price in this way you can have the best polisher for you.
Hand Control Since you might take some time to do the job, you should ensure you are comfortable in doing it. A dual-handle of this polisher will serve you best as you can hold the machine with both hands.
Types Polishers are usually random orbital and other rotational. The random orbital type eliminates all defects while preventing straking or swirling.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
So, if you are still in a doubt on what is the best duel action polisher then hopefully all of your doubts will get clear. I mentioned some of the most frequently asked questions that will help you to make better decisions.
The DA sanders will help you in saving the storage space and it has comes with a palm grip. This particular random orbital sanders has comes with a more compact size as you use the top of the sander to control the movement.
According to me, DEWALT DWP849X 7-Inch/9-Inch variable speed polisher is the best auto polisher right now available in the market. It has a variable speed trigger that allows the user to control speed from 0 to dialed maximum setting easily.
You can easily use a random orbital polisher to sand. The variable speed of this random orbital polisher or sanders can be used to both sand and toned down in polishing.
This orbital sanders are good for places where random orbit sander’s won’t fit and when only light sanding is required. This orbital sanders is perfect for prepping a surface or for knocking down a layer of paint.
You can use a random orbital sander for polishing a car with various polishing pads. But you should make sure that the sander you intend to use should have a variable speed settings. This random orbital sander is the most effective and perfect option for sanding types of tasks.
The best speed for polishing a car should be around 2000-2500 RPM, while you should want to finish the polishing of car around 1100-1300 RPM for final foam polishing.
The Best Random Orbital polisher according to me is the Torq 10FX polisher. The advanced vibration reduction technology allows the user to work for longer periods of time with minimal strain.
Yes if you use a DA polisher then it can damage your car paint.
The term DA stands for dual action sander it is a pretty much versatile tool which you can use to grant most applications and operations.
A dual action polisher is a polishing machine which you can use as a circular motion that is combined with a spinning motion which will help you in creating a rational double action.
After reading about the polishers I think you have understood which one will be the perfect polisher for you? These polishers are used for many purposes but if you look minutely then you can notice that they are mainly used for automotive, marine, and other different types of projects.
Hopefully, you liked this article and got some kind of value out of it. Let me tell you one more thing that on one is forcing you to purchase the products that are mentioned here you are free to choose any of the product over the Internet but my suggestion would be trying to make a better decision and choose the product that suits your need.
So, if you liked this article for what so ever reason then consider sharing this with your friends and family also don’t forget to comment down your thoughts in the below comment section.